The following glossary is primarily aimed at supporting researchers during their mobility experience. It is an initial attempt to provide brief definitions of terms and concepts useful to the understanding of the EURAXESS network.
Researchers may also find useful information for their personal and career development.
This glossary has been conceived as an ongoing project, subject to continuous additions, revisions and changes. It will be constantly updated with current detailed information.
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- Applied research
Applied research, similarly to basic research, is original investigation undertaken in order to acquire new knowledge. It is, however, directed primarily towards a specific practical aim or objective.
- Basic research
Basic research is experimental or theoretical work undertaken primarily to acquire new knowledge of the underlying foundation of phenomena and observable facts, without any particular application or use in view.
This service provides information on the national policies and frameworks for research throughout the European Union’s Member States, candidate countries, associated countries and countries with S&T cooperation agreements. It also gives the latest research-related news and activities of the current and previous presidencies of the Council of the European Union.Visit this link
- Early-stage researchers in the Marie Curie Actions
Researchers in the first four years (full-time equivalent) of their research careers measured from the date when they obtained the degree that would formally entitle them to begin a Doctorate.
Launched in May 2004, ERA-MORE was the previous network of Mobility Centres (MCs) throughout Europe, now called EURAXESS. According to the European Commission, the MCs provided ‘proximity assistance to researchers and their families on all issues relating to their mobility’.
The previous researcher’s mobility portal now called EURAXESS
- ERASMUS MUNDUS
Erasmus Mundus (2009-2013) is a cooperation and mobility programme in the field of higher education that aims to enhance the quality of European higher education and to promote dialogue and understanding between people and cultures through cooperation with Third Countries. In addition, it contributes to the development of human resources and the international cooperation capacity of Higher education institutions in Third Countries by increasing mobility between the European Union and these countries.
- ERASMUS MUNDUS JOINT DOCTORATES
These doctoral-level training and research programmes offer fellowships covering up to three years of doctoral activities.
Provides information on European, national and regional research policies, actors, and programs in the EU and beyond. ERAWATCH supports evidence-based policy making in Europe and contributes to the realization of the European Research Area (ERA). Currently ERAWATCH covers 49 countries in total: 27 EU Member States, countries associated with the European Community’s Research Framework Programme and the main trading partners of the EU.
ERAWATCH information is collected and presented with the support of the ERAWATCH network of national experts.Visit this link
- EU Social Security Coordination
The EU provides common rules to protect social security rights when moving within Europe (EU 27 + Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland). Visit this link
- EURAXESS – Researchers in Motion
A one-stop shop for researchers seeking to advance their careers and personal development by moving to other countries. In addition to the information on training and jobs, this electronic gateway is the entry point to a wealth of practical information on living, working and relaxing in participating European countries. Visit this link
Bridgehead Organisation (BHO)
EURAXESS BHOs perform the following functions:
act as the coordinators at the national level of the network
liaise with the European Commission, national governments and other organisations.
act as a link to the Steering Group for each country
provide expertise in matters falling under the scope of the EURAXESS Services Network.
coordinate the entire network of ESCs and LoCPs at the national level.
- EURAXESS Jobs
Recruitment tool with job listings, funding opportunities, grants, employment, etc. Visit this link
- EURAXESS Links
A networking tool for researchers outside Europe (US, China, Japan, Singapore, India). Visit this link
- EURAXESS Magazine
The EURAXESS Magazine available on the European EURAXESS Portal. The magazine discusses the latest news from the EURAXESS network as well as successful examples of EURAXESS activities and initiatives.Visit this link
- EURAXESS Newsletter
A newsletter that aims to take a fresh look at the rich rewards and occasional challenges of working and pursuing a career in research today. Visit this link
- EURAXESS Rights: the European Charter for Researchers and Code of Conduct for their Recruitment
EURAXESS Rights refers to the European Charter for Researchers and the Code of Conduct for the Recruitment of Researchers, and their implementation (see below).
- EURAXESS Services
Relocation assistance for researchers and their families. Visit this link
- EURAXESS Services Center (ESC)
ESCs provide assistance to researchers and their families in every step of their mobility experiences, starting in their home countries and continuing until they have settled in a new one. This free personalized service provides help in removing red tape and making researchers’ lives easier. Researchers receive comprehensive, up-to-date information, as well as customized assistance on all matters relating to their professional and daily lives. Well-informed staff members are at the researchers’ disposal throughout Europe.
- European Charter for Researchers and Code of Conduct for their Recruitment
Set of roles, responsibilities and rights of researchers as well as of their employers and funders. They guarantee attractive research careers and improve employment an
d working conditions for researchers throughout Europe. Visit this link
- European Commission
The European Commission is the EU’s executive body. It represents and upholds the interests of Europe as a whole, drafts proposals for new European laws and manages the day-to-day business of implementing EU policies and spending EU funds. The Commission also makes sure that everyone abides by the European treaties and laws. Visit this link
- European Partnership for Researchers (EPR)
The EPR is designed to strengthen national ownership and its goals are to:
- systematically open recruitment;
- meet the social security and supplementary pensions needs of mobile researchers;
- provide attractive employment and working conditions;
- enhance the training, skills and experience of researchers.The EPR, to be implemented through National Action Plans (NAPs) and in partnership with the European Commission, aims to achieve, by the end of 2010, progress in all its four priority areas. Most Member States are developing their action plans and are engaged in shared learning and coordination processes. A global assessment will take place by the end of 2010 to review progress and identify further actions needed to address outstanding problems.
- European Research Area (ERA)
A unified area all across Europe that:
- enables researchers to move and interact seamlessly, benefit from world-class infrastructures and work with excellent networks of research institutions;
- shares, teaches, values and uses knowledge effectively for social, business and policy purposes;
- optimizes and opens European, national and regional research programs in order to support the best research throughout Europe and coordinates these programs to address major challenges together;
- develops strong links with partners around the world to ensure that Europe benefits from the worldwide progress of knowledge, contributes to global development and takes a leading role in international initiatives to solve global issues.Visit this link
- European Research Council (ERC)
The ERC is the first European funding body set up to support investigator-driven frontier research. Its main aim is to stimulate scientific excellence by supporting and encouraging the very best, truly creative scientists, scholars and engineers to be adventurous and take risks in their research. The scientists are encouraged to go beyond established frontiers of knowledge and the boundaries of disciplines. The ERC complements other funding activities in Europe such as those of the national research funding agencies, and is a flagship component of the ‘Ideas Programme’ of the European Union’s Seventh Research Framework Programme (FP7).
The ERC aims to:
- support the best of the best scientific efforts in Europe across all fields of science, scholarship and engineering;
- promote wholly investigator-driven, or ‘bottom-up’ frontier research;
- encourage the work of the established and next generation of independent top research leaders in Europe;
- reward innovative proposals by placing emphasis on the quality of the idea rather than the research area;
- harness the diversity of European research talent and channel funds into the most promising or distinguished researchers;
- raise the status and visibility of European frontier research and the very best researchers of today and tomorrow;
- put excellence at the heart of European Research. Visit this link
- Experienced researchers in the Marie Curie Actions
Researchers in possession of a doctoral degree or with at least four years of full-time equivalent research experience.
- Experimental development
Experimental development is systematic work, drawing on existing knowledge gained from research and/or practical experience, which is directed to producing new materials, products or devices, to installing new processes, systems and services, or to improving substantially those already produced or installed. R&D covers both formal R&D in R&D units and informal or occasional R&D in other units.
- FP7 People CALL/Marie Curie Actions
The EU’s Marie Curie Actions help to fund all kinds of trainingand mobility opportunities for researchers throughout their careers.These actions address researchers at all stages of their careers, in the public and private sectors, from initial research training, specifically intended for young people, to lifelong learning and career development.
In the Seventh Framework Programme, the Marie Curie Actions have been regrouped and reinforced in the People Specific Programme. Visit this link
- Horizon 2020
Horizon 2020 is the biggest EU Research and Innovation programme ever with nearly €80 billion of funding available over 7 years (2014 to 2020) – in addition to the private investment that this money will attract. It promises more breakthroughs, discoveries and world-firsts by taking great ideas from the lab to the market.
For more details, please visit the official site of the Horizon 2020
- HR Excellence in Research logo
The HR Excellence in Research logo is awarded to research institutions and funding organisations that have been acknowledged by the European Commission as having made significant progress in implementing the Charter & Code.
- Human Resources in Science & Technology
The aim of HR in Science & Technology is to support an open and competitive European labour market for researchers, enhancing the diversification of competences and career paths at the transnational level. This EU strategy focuses on the following action lines:
- reinforcing the funding for training, mobility and career development of researchers
- fostering the career prospects of researchers both in the public and private sectors
- improving the overall environment for researchers in Europe and enhancing the public recognition of researchers. Visit this link
- Human Resources Strategy for Researchers
The HR Strategy for Researchers supports research institutions and funding organisations in the implementation of the Charter & Code in their policies and practices. The concrete implementation of the Charter & Code by research institutions will render them more attractive to researchers looking for a new employer or for a host for their research project. Funding organisations implementing the Charter & Code principles will contribute to the attractiveness of their national research systems and, more generally, to the attractiveness of the European Research Area. Visit this link
- Innovation Union
The European Commission’s ‘Innovation Union’ page provides a venue for learning about and discussing the EU’s research and innovation activities.
- Local Contact Point (LoCP)
EURAXESS LoCPs support the staff of their own institution by providing assistance to researchers coming to or leaving the institution. They offer hands-on-support, primarily on local-level matters, and are often in face-to-face contact with the researchers and/or their families.
- National EURAXESS portal
The national portals contain online information for researchers moving to and from certain countries.
- Research and experimental development (R&D)
According to the Frascati definition of research:
Research and experimental development (R&D) comprise creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.
The term R&D covers three activities: basic research, applied research and experimental development.
- Research Directorate General
The Directorate General’s mission is evolving as work on the European Research Area (ERA) continues. It can be summarized as follows:
- to develop the European Union’s policy in the field of research and technological development and thereby contribute to the international competitiveness of European industry;
- to coordinate European research activities with those carried out at the level of the Member States;
- to support the Union’s policies in other fields such as environment, health, energy, regional development, etc;
- to promote a better understanding of the role of science in modern societies and stimulate a public debate about research-related issues at the European level. Visit this link
- Research*eu magazine
The European Union research magazine, written by independent professional journalists, which aims to broaden the democratic debate between science and society. Visit this link
- Research*eu results supplement
Highlights from the latest technology offers and project news disseminated on the CORDIS Technology Marketplace and on the ICT Results Service. Visit this link
- Scientific Visa: fast-track to European research careers for non-European Union/third-country nationals.
The Scientific Visa package helps researchers obtain a permission to enter, stay and work in the European Union Member States for the purpose of carrying out scientific research. It is designed to make the process of receiving a residence permit easier for researchers wishing to carry out research for a short period (up to three months) or a long period (over three months) in the EU.
SINAPSE is a web communication platform offering tools to promote a better use of expertise in EU policy making and governance (networking of advisory bodies, support to expert groups, ad-hoc/public consultations and e-debates, etc.) SINAPSE is a free public service provided by the European Commission.
SINAPSE allows users to develop e-Communities, enabling groups of members and organisations with a common interest to share and exchange information in a dedicated environment that can be graphically personalised and linked to the initiator’s website.
SOLVIT is an online problem-solving network in which EU Member States work together to solve problems caused by the misapplication of Internal Market law by public authorities without having to pursue legal action. There is a SOLVIT centre in every European Union Member State, as well as in Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein. SOLVIT Centres can help with handling complaints from both citizens and businesses. They are part of the national administration and are committed to providing real solutions to problems within ten weeks. Using SOLVIT is free of charge. Visit this link
- Steering Group for Human Resources and Mobility of Researchers (SG HRM)
The SG HRM promotes, monitors and reports on the implementation of the Researchers’ Partnership at the EU and national levels and on other ongoing researcher-related activities (e.g. The European Charter for Researchers and Code of Conduct for the Recruitment of Researchers, Scientific Visa, EURAXESS activities).
- The Seventh Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development (FP7)
FP7 is the EU’s main instrument for funding research in Europe and will run from 2007 to 2013. It is also designed to respond to Europe’s employment needs, competitiveness and quality of life.
- Your Europe Advice (YEA) (former Citizens’ Signpost Service – CSS)
The Your Europe Advice service is a Europe-wide service that offers citizens specific and tailored information and advice on their rights under internal market rules—as well as signposting, whenever appropriate, to an authority or other body (official or independent, at the EU, national, or local level) that should be able to solve the problem.The main topics it covers are:
- working in another EU country
- living in another EU country
- studying in another EU country
- buying goods and services in the Single Market
- travelling in the EU
- enforcing your rights
- equal opportunities for men and women
- data protection. Visit this link
This glossary is created in the context of the EURAXESS TOP Project and does not represent the official view of the European Commission or the European Union institutions, and the European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to its content.